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But Wall Street is far more than a location—it has been adopted as a term to describe all U. It has been portrayed Founded by the French, ruled for 40 years by the Spanish and bought by the United States Philadelphia, a city in Pennsylvania whose name means City of Brotherly Love, was originally settled by Native American tribes, particularly the Lenape hunter gatherers, around B.
By the early s, Dutch, English and Swedish merchants had established trading posts in the Settled by the English in , South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify the U.
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Trump Las Vegas Blvd South. Four Seasons Las Vegas Blvd South. Howard Hughes began a buying spree of Las Vegas hotels and other businesses. His presence helped pave the way for the corporate ownership of hotel-casinos that followed.
Starting in the mid s, a period of unprecedented growth began. Annual population increases averaging nearly seven percent caused the city's population to almost double between and , increasing The Fremont Street Experience opened.
This creation also ended auto traffic on the street where teenagers cruised in the s and s. The three-block area known as the Fremont East Entertainment District opened.
The National Museum of Organized Crime and Law Enforcement opened inside the former U. Post Office and Courthouse located at Stewart Ave.
The new City Hall, located at S. Main St. The Smith Center for Performing Arts opened bringing Broadway productions, concerts and a home for culture in Las Vegas.
But how did a city situated so far from the rest of civilization flourish into the town it is today? The area that Las Vegas occupies was once an abundant wet marshland filled with rich vegetation.
But as the marsh receded and waters disappeared from the landscape, the region evolved into an arid desert land.
Miraculously, water that was trapped underground sporadically rose to the surface to water the vigorous plants that survived, forming an oasis.
During the 19th century, Mexican explorer Antonio Armijo was forging the way from New Mexico to California on the first commercial caravan, which would later become known as the Old Spanish Trail.
En route to Los Angeles, the group veered from the traditional path in , settling miles kilometers northeast of present-day Las Vegas.
Rafael Rivera, along with his scouting party, rode west to find water; Rivera left the group to venture into the desert on his own, setting his eyes upon the oasis of Las Vegas Springs.
Over the course of the next century, Mexican and Mormon settlers filtered in and out of Las Vegas, many en route to California via the Old Spanish Trail or to take advantage of the California Gold Rush.
Mormons in Salt Lake City traveled to Las Vegas to protect a mail route; they built adobe structures, planted fruits and vegetables, and mined for lead.
But by , they had abandoned the area. To this day, virtually all of the Strip remains outside the City of Las Vegas. Much like in other American settled counties and towns throughout the United States, entertainment venues were segregated between black- and white-owned businesses.
With almost all of the businesses owned and operated by whites, Black Americans were barred from entering the venues which remained focused, regardless of their legitimacy or criminality, on entertaining a white-only clientele.
As a result of property deeds, businesses owned by or mainly serving non-whites were confined to clubs on the "west side" of the tracks. This also was enforced in many of the work positions.
Thus, African Americans except those who provided the labor for low-paying menial positions or entertainment and Hispanics were limited in employment occupations at the white-owned clubs.
However, because of employment deals with black worker groups, many clubs favored black workers, and the Hispanic population actually decreased ninety percent from 2, to just by the mids.
Organized crime-owned businesses saw an opportunity in not dividing their clientele by race and, despite property deeds and city and county codes barring such activities, made several attempts at desegregating their businesses in the hopes of putting out of operation the non-white owned clubs and expanding their own market share.
An attempt was made at forming an all-integrated night-club modeled on the Harlem Clubs of New York City during the s and s, like those owned by German-Jewish gangster Dutch Schultz.
On May 24, , Jewish crime boss Will Max Schwartz, along with other investors, opened the Moulin Rouge. It was a very upscale and racially integrated casino that actually competed against the resorts on the Strip, especially the non-white owned strips on the west side.
By the end of the year, the casino closed as Schwartz and his partners had a falling out, but the seeds for racial integration were sown.
Many sources have credited Frank Sinatra and the Rat Pack as a significant driving force behind desegregation in the casinos.
However, it took political action for racial desegregation to occur. In , the NAACP threatened a protest of the city's casinos for their policies.
A meeting between the NAACP, the mayor and local businessmen resulted in citywide casino desegregation, starting with the employees.
Many whites were attritioned from positions and their jobs given to the black unions. Along with the rest of the country, Las Vegas experienced the struggle for civil rights.
Activists like James B. McMillan , Grant Sawyer , Bob Bailey, and Charles Keller dragged Las Vegas to racial integration.
Aside from seeing no business advantage to excluding non-white customers from casinos and clubs, the organized crime groups themselves were composed of people of ethnicities Jewish and Italian that faced discrimination from WASP America and thus could understand the plight of blacks.
This was also a driving force behind the integration advocated by ethnic performers such as Sinatra and Martin. Another big force for equality was Mayor Oran Gragson.
Spurred into local politics by a vigilante ring of cops who repeatedly broke into his appliance store, he implemented infrastructure improvements for the minority neighborhoods in Las Vegas, backed the NAACP in its actions, and promoted black workers for jobs.
He also championed the cause of the Paiute tribe that owned a small portion of Las Vegas. Gragson stopped the U.
His work helped reverse the decrease of minority populations in Las Vegas. Local legislation kept up with the national legislation and integration was finally established.
The only real violence came as a result of school integration, with violent riots and fights occurring in Clark High School when black gangs and youths began attacking the whites.
Integration sparked white flight from the school district from to On a percentage basis, Las Vegas and Clark County experienced incredibly high growth rates starting in the s and lasting until the late s recession.
During that period, the population of the city more than doubled in most decades. By , Las Vegas was the largest city founded in the 20th century,  and by it was the 28th largest city in the US, with a population of , in the city and nearly 1.
The explosive growth resulted in rapid development of commercial and residential areas throughout the Las Vegas Valley.
The strong boom in the resort business led to many new condominium developments all along the Strip and downtown area. Also urban sprawl development of single-family homes continued across the valley, building the areas of Henderson, North Las Vegas , Centennial Hills, and Summerlin.
The rapid development and population growth both halted abruptly in the late s recession. During this period of time, American author and journalist Hunter S.
Thompson wrote and published his seminal novel, Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas , detailing the experience of his trip to the city. On November 21, the MGM Grand Hotel and Casino , suffered a devastating fire.
A total of 85 people died and were injured in what remains the worst disaster in Nevada history. The property was eventually sold and reopened as Bally's Las Vegas , while MGM moved south to Tropicana Avenue.